Strain gauges are electronic components that measure strain, stress, displacement, force, and pressure in various applications. They are passive transducers that operate on the “Piezoresistive Effect” principle. Strain gauges consist of layers, including a laminate top layer, sensing element, and plastic film base layer. When bonded to a surface, they flex in response to strain, causing a change in electrical resistance. This resistance change is converted into precise strain readings.
Strain gauges are widely used in engineering to assess materials’ and structures’ stress limits and performance. They provide accurate measurements, enabling engineers to balance safety, durability, and efficiency in their designs. Common applications include aerospace, geotechnical monitoring, and rail safety, where strain gauges ensure structural integrity and prevent accidents. As essential electronic components, strain gauges offer reliable and precise measurement capabilities for various industries and engineering fields. Below are a few strain gauges types based on their arrangement:
Linear strain gauges are electronic components designed to measure strain in a single direction. They have a simple construction and are cost-effective, making them widely used for load testing, fatigue testing, and structural integrity monitoring. Linear strain gauges come in various types, such as LY and DY series, with different sizes and geometrics. LY strain gauges measure strain in one direction, while DY strain gauges are double-linear.
The working principle of linear strain gauges involves bonding them to a surface under stress. As the surface deforms, the strain gauge experiences a proportional change in electrical resistance. This resistance change is then measured to determine the applied strain. Linear strain gauges offer advantages such as affordability, ease of use, and reliable strain measurement in a specific direction.
These strain gauges find applications in the automotive, aerospace, civil engineering, and manufacturing industries. They are utilized for load testing of structures, monitoring the performance of materials, and ensuring the integrity and safety of various components. With their precise measurement capabilities, linear strain gauges play a crucial role in assessing strain and optimizing the design and performance of electronic components and systems.
Rosette strain gauges are specialized sensors that measure strains resulting from biaxial stress conditions. These strain gauges feature multiple measuring elements arranged in a circular or rosette pattern. Tee rosettes consist of two measuring elements perpendicular to each other and are suitable when the principal strain directions are known. Rectangular rosettes have three measuring elements crossed at 0°, 45°, and 90°, while delta rosettes have three elements aligned at 0°, 60°, and 120°.
Rosette strain gauges provide valuable insights into stress analysis and dynamic load monitoring. They are widely utilized in mechanical engineering, aircraft manufacturing, and missile production. By capturing strain information from multiple directions, rosette strain gauges comprehensively understand stress distribution in complex structures. This information helps optimize design, improve material performance, and ensure the reliability and safety of electronic components and systems. The data obtained from rosette strain gauges are often processed using computer programs for simulation and data reduction, aiding in accurate stress analysis and decision-making.
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Diaphragm strain gauges assess radial and tangential strains in constructions such as columns, beams, and shafts. They consist of four measuring elements arranged in circular or linear patterns. These gauges are commonly configured into full bridge circuits. Diaphragm strain gauges offer advantages such as high accuracy, fast frequency response, and good linearity within the range of diaphragm thickness. They are suitable for various applications, including load testing, stress analysis, and structural integrity monitoring in the construction, aerospace, and automotive industries.
The working principle of diaphragm strain gauges involves the deflection of a thin, flexible metal disc in response to applied strain. As the diaphragm bends, the electrical resistance of piezoresistive components changes, generating a voltage difference. This voltage difference is then measured to determine the strain. Diaphragm strain gauges are preferred when measuring low-pressure applications or monitoring strains in structures subjected to radial and tangential stresses.
Shear strain gauges are designed to measure the shear strain caused by torque or torsional loading. They consist of one or two measuring grids bonded to a single carrier. A single-element shear strain gauge is aligned at a 45° angle to the shaft’s axis, while a two-grid shear strain gauge (V Rosette) has elements aligned at 45° and 135° angles. These gauges are used in applications like engine shafts and drivetrains, where accurate shear strain measurement is vital for evaluating torque and power transmission.
Shear strain gauges enable the shaft power calculation by precisely quantifying the strain. The gauge pattern determines the grid shape and orientation, influencing their performance. Shear strain gauges find applications in torque measurement, including engine power assessment, steering wheel input analysis, and bolt tightening. They provide precise measurements, facilitating comprehensive analysis and optimization of electronic components and systems subjected to torsional loading.
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Double parallel strain gauges consist of two linear strain gauges positioned parallel to each other. This configuration provides enhanced sensitivity and accuracy in measuring bending forces or deformations. These strain gauges can be effectively used in applications requiring precise bending or flexural strain assessment, such as in bending beams. By incorporating them into a bending full bridge circuit, two double parallel strain gauges are strategically placed on opposite sides of the structure to capture the desired measurements.
The parallel arrangement of the strain gauges allows for improved performance in accurately monitoring and analyzing bending behavior. With their compact design and compatibility with bridge circuits, double parallel strain gauges are valuable electronic components in engineering, construction, and other industries for evaluating and monitoring the structural integrity of various materials and components subject to bending forces.
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A: To ensure protection, apply aluminum foil coated with a 3-mm thick kneading compound around the entire surface of strain gauges. This safeguards them from weather and water damage.
A: Yes, calibration is crucial for accurate and reliable stress measurements. Strain gauges are extensively used in mechanical engineering to assess components’ and structures’ strength, durability, and performance. Proper calibration before and after each experiment is essential.
A: Tormeka, a reputable strain gauges supplier and other electronic components in Europe stands out as a trusted source. With competitive prices, excellent customer service, and worldwide shipping, Tormeka offers quality products and ensures customer satisfaction. Contact us for a quote and experience convenience.
A: Yes, strain gauges offer the advantage of reusability. Unlike mechanical strain gauges, electrical resistance strain gauges overcome most disadvantages and can be easily used, ensuring cost-effectiveness and convenience.
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